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Is your emergency survival planning on PACE? The spring outdoor season is upon us. The springtime is a great time to spend outdoors. The plans for your next outdoor experience are almost complete. Many survival experts agree that building redundancy in your gear and planning is essential to ensuring getting through an emergency. A simple method for building those layers is one that is from the military. The process for preparing and organizing your activities and gear is the PACE technique.

Assessing Your PACE

PACE is an acronym for Primary (P), Alternate (A), Contingency (C), and Emergency (E). These are layers of redundancy to ensure essential capabilities are available at all times under any circumstances. The PACE technique applies to the different methods of survival: primitive, bushcraft, military, or blended. However, several questions must be answered before applying this method. First, you need to answer the five W’s of your outdoor activity: who, what, where, when, why, along with how.

Assess Experience and Knowledge

Next, you need to assess your level of experience and knowledge: beginner, intermediate, or expert. Additionally, you should also evaluate the level of experience of others. This should be done especially if you are accompanying or leading a group. You should know yourself and those in your group. Furthermore, each member of the group needs to be aware of the level of experience of the other members of the group. Also, you and each member of your group should know what everyone else is carrying for gear. Thus, it is wise to share each other’s packing list.

Assess Critical Capabilities

Third, assess your critical capabilities supporting the activity: first aid, navigation, communication, security? The definition of critical capabilities are those assets that you or your group possess that if lost would jeopardize the survival of yourself or others. Consequently, that means having a good understanding of yourself and your gear and those of the others in your group. If you are in a group, one technique would be to share each other’s packing lists.

Assess Local Terrain and Weather

Fourth, you need to determine the type of terrain and local weather characteristics. It is crucial to survival planning to know where you are going, what time of the year you are going, and what are the patterns of weather where you are going. Others have found themselves in emergency survival situations due to unexpected weather events, such as flash floods. Consequently, they were underprepared for the scenario. Thus, take the time to really understand the historical, current, and projected weather of the location for your outdoor activity. For example, many people have reported their surprise at how cold the desert can get at night in the spring.

Assess Emergency Assistance Availability

Finally, you should understand the availability and access to emergency assistance near the planned activity site. One of the quickest ways to resolve an emergency survival situation is having a basic knowledge of the support available at your location and how to access it. There was a recent story of a teenage boy who ran almost six miles to a park ranger station to get help for his injured father. The young man could not do that if he did not know how to get to that ranger station. The key to survival planning is gaining situational awareness to better PACE yourself.

PACE Your Critical Capabilities

 

1. P: Primary

For the purposes of this article, the capability that will model the PACE method is communication. However, the PACE method applies to any asset or ability that you assess as critical to the success of your outdoor adventures, such as making a fire, rendering first aid, building a shelter, food procurement, or water processing. Therefore, for this hypothetical outdoor scenario, forms of communication are a critical capability that cannot be lost or activities will cease or lives will be jeopardized.

An example of a primary means of communication is a smartphone. Smartphones are becoming more sophisticated every year. They come with a variety of domestic and foreign plans, as well as applications. Many smartphones can function as satellite communication devices in an emergency where there is no commercial wireless coverage. The implied tasks for keeping a smartphone running in the outdoors is to maintain wireless coverage and to charge the battery. Thus, an essential capability for smartphone use in the field is the ability to keep charging the battery with a solar powered charger.

2. A: Alternate

An alternate form of communication in the field is a hand-held radio (HHR). A hand-held radio is also known as a walkie-talkie. HHR devices come in many forms. These radios can transmit and receive voice communication over a limited distance. However, for communicating with an HHR over an extended range, the ability to relay signals through a repeating tower come into play. As with the smartphone, keeping the battery charged on an HHR in the field is also essential.

3. C: Contingency

The definition of contingency is a provision for an unforeseen event or circumstance. Thus, for survival planning a contingency communication asset may be a Garmin® inReach Mini or a SPOT™ Gen 3 device. These devices are for sending out emergency text messages through a satellite service with geo-location information to help first responders find you. These items are almost a last resort communication device if the smartphone or HHR radio goes down or is lost during an emergency survival situation.

4. E: Emergency

An emergency communications capability is an asset that is for when all of the previous devices malfunction, get broken, lose power, or become lost. An example of an emergency communication capability might be a signal fire, signal flares, signal mirror, air horn, or a signal panel (VS-17). Therefore, an emergency signal capability could be any method that you can employ to communicate to others your location or whereabouts.

Some Final Thoughts

The PACE method is a valuable method to help you think through maintaining essential capabilities while outdoors. There is no right or wrong solution to determining your critical capabilities. Each outdoor activity is different. Therefore, the needs will be different. For example, a day-long fishing trip to a nearby location will be different than a hunting trip to Alaska. The same is true for preparing for emergency disasters. The survival needs for my area and family will be different than for those living in the upper Midwest. Thus, the PACE method helps you to think through the preparedness process and to resource your needs.

Maximize Rescue – Signaling / Navigation

Rescue is the goal of every survival situation. Once you meet your primary needs, focus on rescue.
You’re only a survivor when you have been rescued. This means that you must be able to either get yourself out of the predicament you are in (self-rescue) or be rescued from that situation by others (assisted rescue).

Preparation is key-informing people of your intentions and timeframes will at least have someone wondering why you are not back yet. Be sure to leave an ISOPREP Report behind with someone you trust.  (See Principle #1)

THE BIG ? Do I stay, or do I go? This is a major decision. Do you remain where you are or move to a location that offers a better chance of survival, rescue, or both. In general it is always best to stay where you are. It’s all too easy to make a rash decision and attempt to walk out of a situation only to put yourself in even greater danger.

Signaling While waiting for rescue maximize your odds by signaling. The key to signaling is contrast and movement.
Universal Distress Signal: SOS
Universal Distress Number: 3

Primary Signalling Methods:

  • Sound: Create 3 loud blows with a whistle, or by banging metal objects together.
  • Reflection: Reflect rays of the sun off of a mirror or shiny surface such as foil, a CD, or the bottom of a can to attract attention.
  • Light: Using a flashlight or other light source turn on and off 3 times, and then wait 10-15 seconds to repeat.
  • Fire: Create a large signal fire by adding green vegetation to your fire. For best results, create 3 fire platforms that can be easily and quickly lit.
  • Flagging: Using a t-shirt, bandanna, or other material create a flag to wave at potential rescuers.

  • 6_principl_img1
    Ground-to-air:
    To make ground-to-air marker, use anything that contrasts with the ground. Make sure it is big and visible. Common markers: SOS or HELP  Emergency Ground to Air Code:

      • V: Needs Assistance
      • X: Needs Emergency Assistance
      • ->: Direction of Travel

    Navigation

    6_principl_img2

    With proper planning you should have taken a compass and a map with you on your adventure, and you should have the ability to properly read a map and use a compass. Often time’s people find themselves lost, and unable to determine direction, because they failed to be prepared.

    Determine General Direction (Northern Hemisphere) If you can see the sun, you can use an analog watch as a protractor to determine an approximate direction. Ensure it is set to the correct local time. If you don’t have a watch but time, simply draw a watch.
    Point the hour hand towards the sun, and bisect the angle between the hour hand and 12 o’clock. That is your North South Line.

Dead Reckoning When navigating across land, you’re less likely to get lost if you take direct bearing from one feature to another. This will prevent you from going in circles.
When obstacles are in your way simply box around them, or use your pace beads to pace out around the object.

Using these simple rescue techniques could greatly increase your odds of rescue and survival.  Be sure to watch the corresponding video below for further instructor, and as always be sure to share and subscribe.

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