It is vital to keep your feet healthy at all times when outdoors. Survival, bushcraft, and outdoor activities require healthy feet. The U. S. Army gives important instruction to soldiers on the proper care of feet. The U. S. Army field manual, FM 21-18 Foot Marches, offers excellent advice on taking care of your feet. There are three basic principles to remember to keep your feet healthy at all times.

1. Properly Fitting Footwear

Your footwear must fit properly if you wish to keep your feet healthy. It goes without saying that poorly fitting footwear is a menace to healthy feet. Footwear that is too tight or too loose will deteriorate foot health very quickly. Outdoorsmen with the most significant experience are prone to blisters, corns, stress fractures, and hammer toes from wrong footwear in the field. Many extreme athletes become sidelined very quickly by significant foot injuries due to wrong shoes or boots. There are some simple tips to remember about getting the correct footwear for your feet.

Proper Size and Breaking In

Before purchasing footwear, get your feet measured by a professional while wearing your outdoor socks. It will ensure purchasing boots or shoes that are the proper size. Commercial footwear that is available for outdoors is heavily cushioned and lined with Gore-Tex membranes. Thus, outdoor boots or shoes feel snug when you first put them on. However, after wearing those expensive boots or shoes in the field, they lose their snug fit. Your foot will begin to slide inside causing blisters and sore toes. Break in any footwear before wearing it in the field. You might have to purchase footwear ½ size smaller or larger than your standard size to achieve properly fitting footwear after breaking them in.

The Right Footwear from Reputable Manufacturers

Additionally, purchase the right boot or shoe that is suited to your purposes. For example, a pair of running shoes may not be suitable for an extended trek into the wilderness to hunt game. If you are going on a survival adventure in the wilderness for an extended period of time, purchase footwear designed to be outdoors for long periods of time. Furthermore, it is crucial to buy footwear from reputable manufacturers. Many companies are selling military-type footwear that is both low quality and dangerous to wear in the field. Berry Compliant (USA made) military footwear is available directly from the manufacturers like Altama, Belleville, or Danner. Some other great companies to buy footwear are Salomon, Merrill, Lowa, and La Sportiva. Therefore, spend a little more money and get the right footwear. Your feet will thank you for it.

2. Dry Feet and Dry Socks

A second principle about foot health in the wilderness is to keep your feet clean and dry and to also keep your socks clean, dry and changed regularly. Feet will get wet inside footwear from perspiration. Waterproof boots will accentuate the sweating of feet if you are hiking through the outdoors for long periods of time. Remember that having wet feet is a fact of life in the wilderness. Thus, it is critical to dry your feet regularly along with changing your socks. It is recommended that you carry at least two extra pairs of socks in your backpack at all times. One pair you will wear. The second will stay dry in your pack. Your last ones should be cleaned and drying out. Wet socks can hang on the outside of your backpack while trekking if the weather is allowing it. Otherwise, they might have to dry next to your fire in your bivouac site.

Furthermore, the best socks to wear in the wilderness are merino wool or military wool blend boot socks. Socks made of wool give two critical benefits: quick drying and the promotion of foot respiration. Wool fibers will pull the moisture away from your feet. Moreover, it will help keep your feet warm even if your feet are wet inside your boots. These two qualities of wool allow your feet to breathe inside your footwear. This promotes the circulation of blood to your toes. Thus, keeping your feet and socks dry will help your feet stay healthy in the field.

3. Foot Hygiene

The final principle about caring for your feet in the wilderness is to conduct foot hygiene often. Dirty and unattended feet will fester problems that may hinder your movement in the wilderness or bugging out in an emergency. It is dangerous enough just trekking through the bush while tracking down that big buck. If you add a foot injury into the equation, then life becomes complicated very quickly. Furthermore, if there arises a foot ailment or infection caused by lack of foot cleanliness, then a disaster and medevac situation ensues. Therefore, it is needless to say that those clean feet are critical to a successful experience in the wilderness. You can keep your feet clean by remembering to take care of them when resting during a movement. Here is a simple checklist to help you keep your feet fresh while at rest during movement in the outdoors:

  1. Pull off your footwear and socks. 
  2. Elevate your feet for 10-20 minutes to help reduce swelling from trekking.
  3. Wiggle and spread your toes to let the air blow through them while they are elevated.
  4. Inspect your feet after you have rested them.
  5. Clean your feet with a wet wipe
  6. Apply antifungal foot powder on your feet (top, bottom, and between toes) before putting on your socks and footwear
  7. Put a clean, dry pair of socks on after powdering your feet.

These simple steps for conducting foot hygiene will go a long way to keep your feet healthy while outdoors or bugging out during an emergency.

Conclusion

Your feet are your best friend, or they can be your worst enemy in a critical moment of survival. You do not want your mortality to rise or fall on the condition of your feet. If you take care of your feet in the wilderness, you will enhance your chances of survival in a critical situation. Remember these three simple principles of foot care, and you will have a more enjoyable experience outdoors.

Someone recently asked me what my top 10 survival essentials were and it caused me to think. You see, I talk a lot about the top 5 survival essentials. Here at Sigma 3 we teach our classes based on the top 5 essentials. Everything after that is not so essential for life. However there are some things to add to the list, not because they are essential to life, but because they are essential to quality of life. So I wracked my brain to come up with 10 for this list. People like lists with nice round numbers. Well I couldn’t come up with ten, but here a broad overview of my top 7 essentials to help you survive and thrive.

1.   Shelter

I talk about shelter building a lot. That’s because it is a survival essential. In some cases it is the most important survival essential. Like in the north in winter, for instance. Your soft human body can only regulate its heat few hours in the subzero conditions of a northern winter so you need a shelter immediately. The same is true in the scorching desert. You only have a couple hours until the sun zaps all the moisture from your body.  A shelter lets you control the atmosphere around you. It traps warm air in frigid conditions or blocks the harsh sun in arid ones. It also keeps our rain and pests. It’s important and that is why its number 1 on this list.

  1. Water

We need water. It lubricates all of our moving parts and it transports vital minerals and nutrients around our bodies. Without it we die in 3 to 5 days. All other living things need water too. Some of them live in water and some of them can really harm us. They are usually too small to see but they could be in there. So, we have to get them out. Also, water is a solvent, meaning things can dissolve into it. Some of these things, like lead or mercury, are very harmful to us. We have to get them out too. A good way to do that is with a water filter. Whether we make our own or we buy one a water filter is essential. I carry a Sawyer and it works great. You can pick one up here at our store pretty cheap.

  1. Fire

In this modern age we have heated homes with stove tops and ovens but in the wilderness our heat source is almost always fire. Fire does more than just warm us up. It also cooks our food and kills pathogens in our water. It can even be used as a tool but more on tools later. Any outdoorsman that is worth their salt can create fire in any weather, anywhere, at any time. Any instructor, who tells you different, be wary of. There are a million and one instructors in this business and 999,999 of them aint worth a shit.

There are also tons of different fire starting methods, but, in my opinion, the bowdrill is the most universal. It works in the desert as well as in the tropics. It’s pretty simple to use but it does take practice to master it. So make a kit and practice it until you are a master. Then you will be in the top 1% and more importantly you will be able to stay alive while others die.

  1. Food

If you have watched any of the survival TV shows out there nowadays you know that a human can live a long time without food. But is that really living? I prefer to say that a human dies very slowly when not eating food. If you are burning more calories than you are taking into your body then you are either dying or dieting. Food is our fuel and if we don’t have it our body eats itself for fuel. So food is an essential.

We are constantly surrounded by food when we in the wilderness. The problem is can we recognize it and/or catch it. When it comes to plants it’s about knowing what you can and can’t eat. Plants can give us important vitamins and minerals so they are worth knowing. Some plants even contain high amounts of protein but it is rare. So learn them.

As a general rule we get our protein and fat from animals. That means we have to catch them, somehow, so we can eat them. For this we use traps. We can use traps to catch bugs, fish, birds, even bears. Once you know some of the basic mechanics for trap triggers you can create traps that fit your specific needs for your specific situation. So knowing how to set traps is an essential skill.

  1. Tools

We humans are a pretty weak species. We have dull teeth and nails. We are not very strong or fast. We are not covered with protective scales or shells or hair yet our species has managed to dominate the entire natural world. That’s because our large frontal lobes give us the ability to reason and problem solve. We don’t have sharp teeth but we can sharpen sticks bones and rocks. We can then attach them to a shaft that gives us reach. We can even reason how to propel these sharp points by adding bending sticks and cordage. The bow and arrow is just one example out of millions of tools we can use. A sharpened stone flake is a tool by itself and it can be used to make other tools for whatever specific need arises. Personally I think the most important tool we can own is a knife. Yes we can make them ourselves but for quality sake it’s a good idea to invest in a good one.  You can find my top picks here. A good knife can be used to make a million other tools.

 

  1. Medical

Knowing how to heal from damage is a skill that everyone should know. It’s a skill often overlooked because it isn’t generally needed, but when it is needed it is REALLY needed. If you have ever been trapped in the wild with a severe injury you know exactly what I mean.

Knowing what plants can heal specific ailments can make your life better or even save it. Knocking out a cold before it gets bad or getting rid of a bad headache is important but stopping an asthma attack before it kills you is even more important. Learn your medicinal plants.

But don’t rely solely on native plants. Carry a good first aid kit. You will have a hard time finding anything sterile in the wild. Sterile wraps and gauze pads are super useful and they may save your life. You can get a professional first aid kit here.

first aid

  1. Navigation

Navigation is a skill most people don’t think about. Basically navigation is just being able to get from one place to another without getting lost. You can use a map and a compass or landmarks and blazes. Native Americans used rivers and creeks and road maps. Imagine you are traveling along setting some traps. The sun is going down so you head back to your camp and gear. When you start walking back, nothing looks familiar. You are lost. This happens way too often and way too often its ends in death. Don’t let this be you. Learn to find way around.

Navigation

So that’s my list of top 7 survival essentials. If you master these subjects you will be a wilderness ninja. All it takes is guidance and practice. If you want some guidance I would love to train with you. Check out our classes and join us as we master the wilderness.

 

 

 

With all the growing interest in the survival industry there are dozens of different fire starters on the market. Everything from fancy ferro rods, fire pistons, blast matches, and even electronic igniters.   However; without a proper understanding of how to select and prepare natural tinders these fancy gadgets become nothing more than expensive sparklers.

Don’t get me wrong, survival gear is vital, and could very well save your life.  The problem is we develop a false sense of security when we purchase these items without putting in the adequate dirt time to hone the skills necessary to operate them.  For example anyone can take a ferro rod and light a cotton ball on fire, but what if they were told to go out into the forest and try to use a ferro rod in the rain with only natural materials?

Knowing what natural tinder to use, and having the ability to go out collect and harvest it is vital to being able to survive in harsh conditions.  Below is a list of my favorite natural materials to use for fire starting.

Cedar Bark

Cedar bark is amazing due to it’s ability to be lit when damp.  It is extremely fibrous, and because of it’s resinous nature it produces a hot flame aiding in lighting damp kindling.  Simply scrape the outer bark from the tree, and create a softball size birds nest tinder bundle.  Cedar/Juniper trees grow in abundance across the nation, and can be found in several different climates and elevations.  It truly is the go to for fire starting.

Fatwood

Fatwood is bushcraft gold when it comes to fire starting, and is the king of wet fire.  It burns super hot and last a long time.  Fatwood is a resinous enriched dense pine wood that can be found in the roots and base of limbs.  It can be a challenge to harvest, but once you do you wont regret it.  I prefer to gather fatwood from the base of limbs of dead standing pine trees.  Once this material is processed down to a 4-6″ pile of fine scrappings it will light very easily with a spark.  Another option is to make a feather stick from a section of the fatwood.

Birch Bark

Birch bark is an amazing fire starter.  It is rich in resins and comes off the tree like sheets of paper.  I have used paper (white) birch and river birch.  Both work extremely well.  I find the river birch tree most often in areas that collect water – river beds, valley bottoms, marshes, and other moist areas. Peel off the bark in sheets, and scrape it to reveal tiny fibers that will light with ease.

Cattail Fluff

Cattail would be considered a flash tinder.  It takes a spark easier than any of the previously mentioned tinders, but it burns extremely fast.  Cattail is best mixed with cedar bark, pine needles or grass.  You will find this amazing plant in still standing water such as swamps, ponds, or lakes. Process out the cattail heads by crushing or wringing it which will expose all the tiny fibers.  Hit is with a spark and watch it go up in flame.

Tinder Fungus

Polypore mushrooms make excellent tinder fungus.  Look for dried mushrooms that look like shells, fans, horse hooves, or shelves.  On the underside of the mushroom it should not have any gills.  It should look like tiny pores, similar to pores in the skin.  I have found these mushrooms on dead and alive trees, but they are usually found on trees with a dense overhead canopy.  The tinder fungus is not the best for lighting, however; it is one of the best materials for transferring a coal or extending a fire.

Additional Natural Tinders

Pine Needles, leaves, and grasses are also descent options for tinder.   The pine needles and leaves can be a challenge because they do not make a good bundle, but they are better used to extend a fire once you have flame. Grasses often times contain moisture, and can be challenging to light, but they work good when mixed with other fibers.  Old Man’s Beard (Usnea) is another type of tinder that people sometimes use.  For me it has extraordinary medicinal uses.  I would rather save this amazing lichen, and find something else.

To learn more about natural tinders and different fire starting methods register for one of our UPCOMING SURVIVAL STANDARD COURSES.

I hope you found this Natural Tinder blog to be educational and informative.  Be sure to watch the companion video below, and show your support by liking, sharing, and subscribing.   Thanks Justin “Sage” Williams

45days_blg_img_1

Life has a way of tearing you down. It can be extremely difficult to carry the weight of it all. Many are aware that I took the 45 Day Instructor Course in the Spring of 2016, but what most don’t know is “WHY” I took the program. I will get into that shortly, but I wan’t you to first understand there are many reasons people take this course.  For some it is the thought of one day teaching survival for a living, for others they want to join the Sigma team, but for most it is the opportunity to reconnect with nature.  Each of those are amazing reasons to attend this course.

 

45days_blg_img_2
For me, I was going through a very dark time.  I had lost my career (my calling), my best friend just went to jail for 40 years, and some people I thought had my back abandoned me.  The crappy thing about it all, is none of this was my doing. It was the direct actions of another.  I had lost all hope.  $4,000 for a survival course seems like a far stretch, but at that time I would have paid a million dollars for a sense of relief and purpose again.

45days_blg_img_3
When I first arrived at Sigma 3 I was so excited.  For 45 days I didn’t have to worry about anything except what I was going to eat, and where I was going to sleep. The heavy load completely lifted off my shoulders.  From there, the rest was history.  I am happy to say I was able to let go, and learn to forgive.  Healing took place on that mountain.

Here are many of the life changing benefits that can come from immersing yourself into the wild:

  • Fresh Perspective
  • New Beginning
  • Sense of Accomplishment
  • Independence from Artificial Establishments
  • Friendships that Last
  • Confidence in Your Abilities
  • Self-Realization like Never before
  • Oneness with Nature
  • Appreciation for the little things.
  • Stronger Relationships with Family
  • Freedom to Rediscover Who YOU ARE.
  • & PEACE!

Not to even mention the skills you will learn, and the doors of opportunity that will open. As soon as I graduated I was invited to be a guest instructor at several survival schools, and even got a couple full-time teaching opportunities.  I decided to take a job as the full-time survival instructor for a school based in South Carolina.  I was super excited, but my heart was always in the Ozarks.   My family and I moved to the Carolinas in the Summer of 2016, and within 6 months I had created an established survival program there.   At the end of 2016 Rob (Sigma 3 Owner) decided it was time for me to come home, and he offered me the Director of Operations and Lead Instructor position at Sigma 3.  Since then I have been leading the Sigma program, and together with Rob’s guidance we continue to run one of the largest and most comprehensive survival schools in the World.

So if you are like me, and need a fresh start then consider the 45 Days Instructor Program.  I know you won’t regret it. REGISTER HERE!

See my journey here:

For many survival has become more than a hobby, it is a way of life.  The survival industry is a vast and ever growing community built around developing self-reliance skills and reconnecting with nature.  It is in this exciting pursuit many skills get overlooked and in some cases are underrated.  The thought of rubbing two sticks together is exhilarating… “I am man, I have made fire!”
tp_undrrtd_srvvl_img1
It carries this sense of accomplishment that I have not found in any other skill.  Then there is building this mansion in the woods from only what nature provided.  In comparison to our modern day homes it is nothing but some simple sticks put together to build a shelter, but that child like part of us sees an amazing fort capable of withstanding the weight of the world.  Each of these are vital skills as well as many others, but what about the ones that are just as essential, but not as popular.  Are we setting people up for failure, or maybe even… injury or death?  These are the Most Underrated Survival Skills that I think everyone should be implementing.

tp_undrrtd_srvvl_img2
#1 SAFETY – I am not talking about creating safe places in the woods where everyone wears a bubble suit, although I could see that happening in today’s society.  I am referring to teaching people good body mechanics as they move through the woods, safe food handling practices,  proper knife/axe/hatchet/saw techniques, developing solid communication chains (filling out an ISOPREP Report, and leaving with someone you trust), and understanding one’s own capabilities.


tp_undrrtd_srvvl_img3
#2 SECURITY
– Many times we associate the term security with tactical or firearms training, and in many ways those are vital to security, but what about the soft skills such as shelter location, perimeter alarms, predator deterrents (bear bags, bear spray, etc), how to respond to predators, and then the most dangerous animal in the woods… man.  Knives can be carried where guns cannot.  I highly recommend you develop some knife fighting skills.


tp_undrrtd_srvvl_img4
#3 SELF-AID
– I just spent 8 days training in some intensive wilderness medical skills, and realized that my knowledge of proper wilderness self-aid was sorely lacking.  I am grateful for this eye opening experience, and plan to make it a priority in my training.  I think every individual should at least know how to control/stop bleeding and create a sling, splint, and sprain wrap.  Want a real challenge? Try putting a splint and sling on your own without any assistance.

Vital Items every medic pack should contain:


tp_undrrtd_srvvl_img5
#4 SIGNALING/SELF-RESCUE
(NAVIGATION)  – With some basic navigation training there would be far fewer people getting lost in the woods.  Even something as simple as terrain association could make a huge difference.  I have been an avid woodsman for over 10 years, and I have been known to get turned around from time to time myself. I have found that just taking a few seconds every 100 yards to identify key features in your surroundings help immensely.  Carrying a good compass and understanding how it works is important as well.


tp_undrrtd_srvvl_img6
#5 SANITATION
(HYGIENE) – Last but not least sanitation and hygiene are rarely if ever talked about in the survival community, and the lack of sanitation is probably the number one reason for stomach bugs and infection.  Keeping your camp clean and tidy will promote good health and morale.  Designate areas for waste elimination (restrooms) at least 75-100 yards outside of camp.  Properly wash your hands when possible.  Even some coarse sand in the creek rubbed on your hands will help.  Bring toilet paper and bury/burn, or make sure you understand which plants or rocks work great for wiping.

I hope you enjoyed this post, my intentions were not to educate you in each of these areas; however to bring them to your attention so you might research and seek out proper education in these areas.  Please show your support Sigma 3 by sharing this blog post, and shopping with the provided links in this post.


etdable_bgs_img4
Justin “Sage” Williams

Director of Operations/
Lead Instructor
Sigma 3 Survival School

sgma_stlte_img1
We are excited to announce our Sigma Satellites; a new and simple way to join the Sigma family. We have a proud honored group of instructors and affiliates, and it is our passion to incorporate the best in the industry. Unfortunately, for many they cannot take off 45 Days to become a certified instructor, and that is why we are launching multiple satellite training locations across the country.

sgma_stlte_img2

Sigma Satellites provide land owners the opportunity to host training courses on their property which allows them to participate in training without travelling.  It also, provides many of our certified instructors the opportunity to teach.

sgma_stlte_img3

This new program offers profit split with land owners that allow us to host training courses on their land. They will receive 10% of all gross profits from each course and their immediate family will receive unlimited free training at all classes hosted at their site. We have around 4 new properties we are adding at the moment and if you have an interest in having us host classes at your property, then contact us and we can discuss details. Please share this and tag your friends that might be interested and own land.

Join the Team! Host Course! Become a Sigma Satellite!

Maximize Rescue – Signaling / Navigation

Rescue is the goal of every survival situation. Once you meet your primary needs, focus on rescue.
You’re only a survivor when you have been rescued. This means that you must be able to either get yourself out of the predicament you are in (self-rescue) or be rescued from that situation by others (assisted rescue).

Preparation is key-informing people of your intentions and timeframes will at least have someone wondering why you are not back yet. Be sure to leave an ISOPREP Report behind with someone you trust.  (See Principle #1)

THE BIG ? Do I stay, or do I go? This is a major decision. Do you remain where you are or move to a location that offers a better chance of survival, rescue, or both. In general it is always best to stay where you are. It’s all too easy to make a rash decision and attempt to walk out of a situation only to put yourself in even greater danger.

Signaling While waiting for rescue maximize your odds by signaling. The key to signaling is contrast and movement.
Universal Distress Signal: SOS
Universal Distress Number: 3

Primary Signalling Methods:

  • Sound: Create 3 loud blows with a whistle, or by banging metal objects together.
  • Reflection: Reflect rays of the sun off of a mirror or shiny surface such as foil, a CD, or the bottom of a can to attract attention.
  • Light: Using a flashlight or other light source turn on and off 3 times, and then wait 10-15 seconds to repeat.
  • Fire: Create a large signal fire by adding green vegetation to your fire. For best results, create 3 fire platforms that can be easily and quickly lit.
  • Flagging: Using a t-shirt, bandanna, or other material create a flag to wave at potential rescuers.

  • 6_principl_img1
    Ground-to-air:
    To make ground-to-air marker, use anything that contrasts with the ground. Make sure it is big and visible. Common markers: SOS or HELP  Emergency Ground to Air Code:

      • V: Needs Assistance
      • X: Needs Emergency Assistance
      • ->: Direction of Travel

    Navigation

    6_principl_img2

    With proper planning you should have taken a compass and a map with you on your adventure, and you should have the ability to properly read a map and use a compass. Often time’s people find themselves lost, and unable to determine direction, because they failed to be prepared.

    Determine General Direction (Northern Hemisphere) If you can see the sun, you can use an analog watch as a protractor to determine an approximate direction. Ensure it is set to the correct local time. If you don’t have a watch but time, simply draw a watch.
    Point the hour hand towards the sun, and bisect the angle between the hour hand and 12 o’clock. That is your North South Line.

Dead Reckoning When navigating across land, you’re less likely to get lost if you take direct bearing from one feature to another. This will prevent you from going in circles.
When obstacles are in your way simply box around them, or use your pace beads to pace out around the object.

Using these simple rescue techniques could greatly increase your odds of rescue and survival.  Be sure to watch the corresponding video below for further instructor, and as always be sure to share and subscribe.

There is nothing more refreshing than having a clean glass of drinking water.

“We tend to take water for granted until we don’t have any – at which point it becomes the most important thing in the world.”

 


6prncpl_srvvl_mnze_img1
What is Dehydration? 
There are several stages of dehydration, but the primary thing you need to understand is that when the body begins to lose water it will begin to function irregularly and in severe cases vital organs begin to shut down.  The effects of water loss could include: thirst, dark colored urine, dry mouth/lips/eyes, dizziness/light-headedness, headache, lethargy, and in severe cases irregular pulse, trouble breathing, unconsciousness, and even death.  Lack of water can prevents the body from being able to regulate your core body temperature, and could result in heat exhaust or heat stroke.

Rationing/Conserving Water and Delaying Dehydration – There is a lot of debate on rationing your water, or conserving it, and I am no expert, but I am convinced your body will utilize the water as needed.  Rationing your water can be beneficial if it gives you a psychological advantage by continually moistening your lips, mouth, and throat.  Just be careful not to be so conservative that you are found dead from dehydration with a canteen of water.


6prncpl_srvvl_mnze_img2
Water Sources 
– Choosing a choice water source can be difficult, but it is important to find the cleanest, clearest, flowing water you can find.  Water Sources could consist of  springs, streams, rivers, wells, lakes, ponds, seepage, rain cavities, vegetation, vines, and trees.

 

5 Primary Water Hazards

  1. Bacteria/Pathogens: Cholera, Echoli, Salmonella
  2. Protozoa/Amoebas: Crypto, Giardia
  3. Virus: Hepatitis A & E
  4. Parasite: Hook Worms, Tapeworms
  5. Chemicals/Metals/Additives – Fluoride, oils/fuels, phosphate, lead, mercury, arsenic

 

5 Primary Water Treatment Methods

  1. 6prncpl_srvvl_mnze_img3

    Boil – Over a Fire, Rock Boil

  2. Filter – Commercial Filters, Tripod Filter, Bottle Filter
  3. Chemical – Tablets, Iodine, Bleach, Natural Teas Volatile Oils (Mint)(Pine Needles
  4. Solar/UV – Pasteurization, Transpiration, Solar Still
  5. Distill

Last Resort

If you have absolutely no means of treating or boiling water, you should try to:

  • Find the clearest flowing water and collect it from the surface.
  • Fill canteen with mouth facing away from current.
  • Avoid water sources with animal tracks, scat, or carcass.
  • Filter Debris out with a bandanna, or sock as a last resort.
  • Remember, it’s better to drink foul water than not to drink at all, and die.

Show your support, like, share, subscribe, and be sure to check out the corresponding YouTube Video: 6 Principles of Survival – Minimize Dehydration.    Thanks – Justin “Sage” Williams

 

 

“The psychological effects of being able to start a fire should not be underestimated; neither should the effects of not being able to start one.”

In any survival situation maintaining your core body temperature is critical.  It could be the difference between life and death. Beyond Shelter (See part 1 CBT Shelter Blog post) fire is crucial.  It has the ability to form a micro climate to protect you from the elements, treat water, cook food, sterilize for first aid, and provide comfort and security.  It cannot be underestimated.

I could write several blog post on the fundamentals of fire alone, but I will stick to just a few key principles.

Four Stages of Fire: By most standards there are 4 stages of a fire. These stages are incipient, growth, fully developed, and decay.

  • Incipient/Ignition – This first stage begins with the Fire Triangle

The Fire Triangle: Too often we think of fire as an object, and fail to understand the reaction that takes place.  Fire is an event.  When the elements of Fuel, Oxygen, and Heat are combined they create combustion which results in FIRE!

  • Growth –  This is where the combustibles and oxygen are used as fuel for the fire. Usually consist of isolated flames.   There are numerous factors affecting the growth stage.       Factors that affect fire development
    1. Fuel type
    2. Availability of air supply
    3. Availability and proximity of additional fuel
    4. Ventilation and changes in ventilation
    5. Ambient conditions (e.g. wind, temperature, humidity, etc.)
  • Fully Developed – When all combustible materials have been ignited, a fire is considered fully developed.  This is the hottest phase of a fire and the point where it produces the most heat.
  • Decay – Usually the longest stage of a fire, the decay stage is characterized a significant decrease in one or more of the elements found in the triangle of fire, putting an end to the fire.

Now that you have a simple overview of the stages of fire, let us look at several different methods for starting a fire.

5 Primary Fire Methods/Ignitions

Friction – Ferro Rod / Bow Drill / Hand Drill / Fire Saw / Fire Plow

Solar – Magnifying Lens (position, angle, and sturdiness is key) (char-cloth, fungus, ball)

Percussion – Flint and Steel

Electrical – Battery & Steel Wool

Chemical – Potassium Permanganate & Glycerin

Be sure to lay down a proper fire platform (ground barrier), and a well prepped tinder bundle before starting a fire.  We have several videos on many of these fire methods.  Having an adequate amount kindling will also greatly impact the effectiveness of your fire.

6prncpl_srvvl_prt2_img1

Extinguish 

Always properly extinguish your fires.  Fire Control Theory – fire is controlled and extinguished by limiting or interrupting one or more of the essential elements in the fire triangle.  Before you leave make ash soup.  If you cant place your hands in the coals/ash without burning yourself then you have not properly extinguished your fire.

 

Be sure to check out the corresponding YouTube Video, and be sure to show your support – Like, Share, Subscribe!

 

 

 

 

 

 

PICK THE NEXT SPECIALTY CLASS! Our POLLS determine what classes are offered next according to popular demand! It would be great for us to offer every survival class possible,  but time is limited for everyone and we need to focus on our students most critical needs. What is your top choice for the following classes being offered that you are interested in?

ANSWER the poll below to help define survival training needs & focus.

If you want to look at the companies websites to determine what you like best. Click here for more info! Click the pics to see company websites!

SHARE the poll with your friends on Facebook or by e-mail.

CONTACT US if you have any questions or want to suggest other companies you want to train with.

[poll id=”3″]

© Copyright - Survival School Site Built By: Overhaulics